首页 > 技术问答 > 水中重金属测量的物质指哪些物质?

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水中重金属测量的物质指哪些物质?
2013-03-01 阅读次数 1751

重金属是指密度在5×103kg/m3以上的金属,如金(Au)、银(Ag)、汞(Hg)、铜(Cu)、铅(Pb)、镉(Cd)、铬(Cr)等。有些重金属通过食物进入人体,干扰人体正常生理功能,危害人体健康,被称为有毒重金属,主要有汞、镉、铬(Cr)、铅、砷(As)、锌(Zn)、锡(Sn)等。其中,砷本属于非金属元素,但根据其化学性质,有鉴于其毒性,一般将其列在有毒重金属元素内。人类活动极易造成水质的重金属污染。人们通过食用水产品,使得重金属在人体内富集,严重损害身体健康。南海禁渔期已结束,东海禁渔期也将结束,我们将要享受美味海鲜的同时,还要小心环境恶化给水产品带来重金属污染的食品安全问题。

重金属富集作用存在水产品中,会使水产生物中毒,进而在人体内累积而无法排出,危害人体健康。重金属对水产动物的毒性一般以汞为最大,汞能在鱼体内大量积聚,其浓缩倍数可达千倍以上。历史上由于食用重金属污染超标的水产品污染事件还是比较多的,如日本的水俣病等,就是由于人们食用富集汞的水产品,鱼对重金属汞的富集能力特别强。富集原理很简单,重金属跟蛋白质结合。从生化的角度来讲,重金属进入人体会替代有益金属元素跟酶的结合能力,导致酶失活。


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